icon Top 9 categories map      RocketAware > man pages >


Tips: Browse or Search all pages for efficient awareness of more than 6000 of the most popular reusable and open source applications, functions, libraries, and FAQs.

The "RKT couplings" below include links to source code, updates, additional information, advice, FAQs, and overviews.


Search all pages


By activity
Professions, Sciences, Humanities, Business, ...

User Interface
Text-based, GUI, Audio, Video, Keyboards, Mouse, Images,...

Text Strings
Conversions, tests, processing, manipulation,...

Integer, Floating point, Matrix, Statistics, Boolean, ...

Algorithms, Memory, Process control, Debugging, ...

Stored Data
Data storage, Integrity, Encryption, Compression, ...

Networks, protocols, Interprocess, Remote, Client Server, ...

Hard World
Timing, Calendar and Clock, Audio, Video, Printer, Controls...

File System
Management, Filtering, File & Directory access, Viewers, ...


RocketLink!--> Man page versions: OpenBSD FreeBSD Others

ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       curses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include <curses.h>

       The curses library routines give the user a terminal-inde-
       pendent method of updating character screens with  reason-
       able  optimization.  This implementation is ``new curses''
       (ncurses) and is the approved replacement for 4.4BSD clas-
       sic curses, which has been discontinued.

       The ncurses routines emulate the curses(3) library of Sys-
       tem V Release 4 UNIX, and the XPG4  curses  standard  (XSI
       curses)  but the ncurses library is freely redistributable
       in source form.  Differences from the SVr4 curses are sum-
       marized  under  the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below and
       described in detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of
       individual man pages.

       A  program  using  these  routines must be linked with the
       -lcurses option.

       The curses package supports: overall  screen,  window  and
       pad manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading ter-
       minal input; control over terminal and  curses  input  and
       output  options; environment query routines; color manipu-
       lation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabilities; and
       access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine initscr or newterm
       must be called before any of the other routines that  deal
       with  windows  and  screens  are used.  The routine endwin
       must be called before exiting.  To get character-at-a-time
       input  without  echoing (most interactive, screen oriented
       programs want this),  the  following  sequence  should  be

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before  a curses program is run, the tab stops of the ter-
       minal should be set and  its  initialization  strings,  if
       defined,  must  be  output.  This can be done by executing
       the tput init command after the shell environment variable
       TERM  has  been  exported.  tset(1) is usually responsible
       for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       The curses library permits  manipulation  of  data  struc-
       tures,  called  windows,  which  can be thought of as two-
       dimensional arrays of characters representing all or  part
       of a CRT screen.  A default window called stdscr, which is
       the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.  Others  may
       be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does  not  handle overlapping windows,
       that's done by the panel(3) library. This means  that  you
       can either use stdscr or divide the screen into tiled win-
       dows and not using stdscr at  all.  Mixing  the  two  will
       result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.
       These  data  structures  are  manipulated  with   routines
       described  here  and elsewhere in the curses manual pages.
       Among which the most basic routines are  move  and  addch.
       More  general versions of these routines are included with
       names beginning with w, allowing the  user  to  specify  a
       window.  The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After using routines to manipulate a  window,  refresh  is
       called,  telling curses to make the user's CRT screen look
       like stdscr.  The characters in a window are  actually  of
       type  chtype, (character and attribute data) so that other
       information about the character may also  be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special  windows  called  pads  may  also  be manipulated.
       These are windows which are not constrained to the size of
       the  screen and whose contents need not be completely dis-
       played.  See curs_pad(3) for more information.

       In addition to drawing characters  on  the  screen,  video
       attributes  and colors may be supported, causing the char-
       acters to show up in such modes as underlined, in  reverse
       video,  or in color on terminals that support such display
       enhancements.  Line drawing characters may be specified to
       be  output.   On  input,  curses is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys  that  transmit  escape  sequences
       into  single  values.   The video attributes, line drawing
       characters,  and  input  values  use  names,  defined   in
       <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or
       if the program is executing in a window environment,  line
       and  column  information  in the environment will override
       information read by terminfo.  This would effect a program
       running  in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the size
       of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any  pro-
       gram  using  curses checks for a local terminal definition
       before checking in the standard place.   For  example,  if


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       TERM is set to att4424, then the compiled terminal defini-
       tion is found in


       (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid
       creation  of  huge  directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is
       set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for developing experimental definitions  or
       when write permission in /usr/share/terminfo is not avail-

       The integer  variables  LINES  and  COLS  are  defined  in
       <curses.h>  and will be filled in by initscr with the size
       of the screen.  The constants TRUE and FALSE have the val-
       ues 1 and 0, respectively.

       The  curses  routines  also  define  the WINDOW * variable
       curscr which is used for certain low-level operations like
       clearing  and  redrawing a screen containing garbage.  The
       curscr can be used in only a few routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many curses routines have two or more versions.  The  rou-
       tines prefixed with w require a window argument.  The rou-
       tines prefixed with p require a pad argument.  Those with-
       out a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate
       to move to before performing the appropriate action.   The
       mv  routines  imply  a call to move before the call to the
       other routine.  The coordinate y always refers to the  row
       (of  the  window), and x always refers to the column.  The
       upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument
       and  x  and  y coordinates.  The window argument is always
       specified before the coordinates.

       In each case, win is the window affected, and pad  is  the
       pad affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WIN-

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the
       value TRUE or FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  The vari-
       ables ch and attrs below are always of type  chtype.   The


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       types  WINDOW,  SCREEN,  bool,  and  chtype are defined in
       <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL  is  defined  in  <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name
       of the manual page on which  it  is  described.   Routines
       flagged  with  `*'  are ncurses-specific, not described by
       XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                curses Routine Name   Manual Page Name
                addch                 curs_addch(3)
                addchnstr             curs_addchstr(3)
                addchstr              curs_addchstr(3)
                addnstr               curs_addstr(3)
                attr_get              curs_attr(3)
                attr_off              curs_attr(3)
                attr_on               curs_attr(3)
                attr_set              curs_attr(3)
                addstr                curs_addstr(3)
                attroff               curs_attr(3)
                attron                curs_attr(3)
                attrset               curs_attr(3)
                baudrate              curs_termattrs(3)
                beep                  curs_beep(3)
                bkgd                  curs_bkgd(3)
                bkgdset               curs_bkgd(3)
                border                curs_border(3)
                box                   curs_border(3)
                can_change_color      curs_color(3)
                cbreak                curs_inopts(3)
                chgat                 curs_attr(3)
                clear                 curs_clear(3)
                clearok               curs_outopts(3)
                clrtobot              curs_clear(3)
                clrtoeol              curs_clear(3)
                color_content         curs_color(3)
                color_set             curs_attr(3)
                copywin               curs_overlay(3)
                curs_set              curs_kernel(3)
                def_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3)
                def_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3)
                define_key            define_key(3)*
                del_curterm           terminfo(3)
                delay_output          curs_util(3)
                delch                 curs_delch(3)
                deleteln              curs_deleteln(3)
                delscreen             curs_initscr(3)
                delwin                curs_window(3)
                derwin                curs_window(3)
                doupdate              curs_refresh(3)


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

                dupwin                curs_window(3)
                echo                  curs_inopts(3)
                echochar              curs_addch(3)
                endwin                curs_initscr(3)
                erase                 curs_clear(3)
                erasechar             curs_termattrs(3)
                filter                curs_util(3)
                flash                 curs_beep(3)
                flushinp              curs_util(3)
                getbegyx              curs_getyx(3)
                getbkgd               curs_bkgd(3)
                getch                 curs_getch(3)
                getmaxyx              curs_getyx(3)
                getmouse              curs_mouse(3)*
                getnstr               curs_getstr(3)
                getparyx              curs_getyx(3)
                getstr                curs_getstr(3)
                getsyx                curs_kernel(3)
                getwin                curs_util(3)
                getyx                 curs_getyx(3)
                halfdelay             curs_inopts(3)
                has_colors            curs_color(3)
                has_ic                curs_termattrs(3)
                has_il                curs_termattrs(3)
                has_key               curs_getch(3)*
                hline                 curs_border(3)
                idcok                 curs_outopts(3)
                idlok                 curs_outopts(3)
                immedok               curs_outopts(3)
                inch                  curs_inch(3)
                inchnstr              curs_inchstr(3)
                inchstr               curs_inchstr(3)
                init_color            curs_color(3)
                init_pair             curs_color(3)
                initscr               curs_initscr(3)
                innstr                curs_instr(3)
                insch                 curs_insch(3)
                insdelln              curs_deleteln(3)
                insertln              curs_deleteln(3)
                insnstr               curs_insstr(3)
                insstr                curs_insstr(3)
                instr                 curs_instr(3)
                intrflush             curs_inopts(3)
                is_linetouched        curs_touch(3)
                is_wintouched         curs_touch(3)
                isendwin              curs_initscr(3)
                keyname               curs_util(3)
                keyok                 keyok(3)*
                keypad                curs_inopts(3)
                killchar              curs_termattrs(3)
                leaveok               curs_outopts(3)
                longname              curs_termattrs(3)
                mcprint               curs_print(3)*


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

                meta                  curs_inopts(3)
                mouseinterval         curs_mouse(3)*
                mousemask             curs_mouse(3)*
                move                  curs_move(3)
                mvaddch               curs_addch(3)
                mvaddchnstr           curs_addchstr(3)
                mvaddchstr            curs_addchstr(3)
                mvaddnstr             curs_addstr(3)
                mvaddstr              curs_addstr(3)
                mvchgat               curs_attr(3)
                mvcur                 terminfo(3)
                mvdelch               curs_delch(3)
                mvderwin              curs_window(3)
                mvgetch               curs_getch(3)
                mvgetnstr             curs_getstr(3)
                mvgetstr              curs_getstr(3)
                mvhline               curs_border(3)
                mvinch                curs_inch(3)
                mvinchnstr            curs_inchstr(3)
                mvinchstr             curs_inchstr(3)
                mvinnstr              curs_instr(3)
                mvinsch               curs_insch(3)
                mvinsnstr             curs_insstr(3)
                mvinsstr              curs_insstr(3)
                mvinstr               curs_instr(3)
                mvprintw              curs_printw(3)
                mvscanw               curs_scanw(3)
                mvwaddch              curs_addch(3)
                mvwaddchnstr          curs_addchstr(3)
                mvwaddchstr           curs_addchstr(3)
                mvwaddnstr            curs_addstr(3)
                mvwaddstr             curs_addstr(3)
                mvwchgat              curs_attr(3)
                mvwdelch              curs_delch(3)
                mvwgetch              curs_getch(3)
                mvwgetnstr            curs_getstr(3)
                mvwgetstr             curs_getstr(3)
                mvwhline              curs_border(3)
                mvwin                 curs_window(3)
                mvwinch               curs_inch(3)
                mvwinchnstr           curs_inchstr(3)
                mvwinchstr            curs_inchstr(3)
                mvwinnstr             curs_instr(3)
                mvwinsch              curs_insch(3)
                mvwinsnstr            curs_insstr(3)
                mvwinsstr             curs_insstr(3)
                mvwinstr              curs_instr(3)
                mvwprintw             curs_printw(3)
                mvwscanw              curs_scanw(3)
                mvwvline              curs_border(3)
                napms                 curs_kernel(3)
                newpad                curs_pad(3)
                newterm               curs_initscr(3)


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

                newwin                curs_window(3)
                nl                    curs_outopts(3)
                nocbreak              curs_inopts(3)
                nodelay               curs_inopts(3)
                noecho                curs_inopts(3)
                nonl                  curs_outopts(3)
                noqiflush             curs_inopts(3)
                noraw                 curs_inopts(3)
                notimeout             curs_inopts(3)
                overlay               curs_overlay(3)
                overwrite             curs_overlay(3)
                pair_content          curs_color(3)
                pechochar             curs_pad(3)
                pnoutrefresh          curs_pad(3)
                prefresh              curs_pad(3)
                printw                curs_printw(3)
                putp                  terminfo(3)
                putwin                curs_util(3)
                qiflush               curs_inopts(3)
                raw                   curs_inopts(3)
                redrawwin             curs_refresh(3)
                refresh               curs_refresh(3)
                reset_prog_mode       curs_kernel(3)
                reset_shell_mode      curs_kernel(3)
                resetty               curs_kernel(3)
                resizeterm            resizeterm(3)*
                restartterm           terminfo(3)
                ripoffline            curs_kernel(3)
                savetty               curs_kernel(3)
                scanw                 curs_scanw(3)
                scr_dump              curs_scr_dump(3)
                scr_init              curs_scr_dump(3)
                scr_restore           curs_scr_dump(3)
                scr_set               curs_scr_dump(3)
                scrl                  curs_scroll(3)
                scroll                curs_scroll(3)
                scrollok              curs_outopts(3)
                set_curterm           terminfo(3)
                set_term              curs_initscr(3)
                setscrreg             curs_outopts(3)
                setsyx                curs_kernel(3)
                setterm               terminfo(3)
                setupterm             terminfo(3)
                slk_attr              curs_slk(3)*
                slk_attr_off          curs_slk(3)
                slk_attr_on           curs_slk(3)
                slk_attr_set          curs_slk(3)
                slk_attroff           curs_slk(3)
                slk_attron            curs_slk(3)
                slk_attrset           curs_slk(3)
                slk_clear             curs_slk(3)
                slk_color             curs_slk(3)
                slk_init              curs_slk(3)


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

                slk_label             curs_slk(3)
                slk_noutrefresh       curs_slk(3)
                slk_refresh           curs_slk(3)
                slk_restore           curs_slk(3)
                slk_set               curs_slk(3)
                slk_touch             curs_slk(3)
                standend              curs_attr(3)
                standout              curs_attr(3)
                start_color           curs_color(3)
                subpad                curs_pad(3)
                subwin                curs_window(3)
                syncok                curs_window(3)
                termattrs             curs_termattrs(3)
                termname              curs_termattrs(3)
                tgetent               termcap(3)
                tgetflag              termcap(3)
                tgetnum               termcap(3)
                tgetstr               termcap(3)
                tgoto                 termcap(3)
                tigetflag             terminfo(3)
                tigetnum              terminfo(3)
                tigetstr              terminfo(3)
                timeout               curs_inopts(3)
                touchline             curs_touch(3)
                touchwin              curs_touch(3)
                tparm                 terminfo(3)
                tputs                 termcap(3)
                tputs                 terminfo(3)
                typeahead             curs_inopts(3)
                unctrl                curs_util(3)
                ungetch               curs_getch(3)
                ungetmouse            curs_mouse(3)*
                untouchwin            curs_touch(3)
                use_default_colors    dft_fgbg(3)*
                use_env               curs_util(3)
                vidattr               terminfo(3)
                vidputs               terminfo(3)
                vline                 curs_border(3)
                vw_printw             curs_printw(3)
                vw_scanw              curs_scanw(3)
                vwprintw              curs_printw(3)
                vwscanw               curs_scanw(3)
                waddch                curs_addch(3)
                waddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3)
                waddchstr             curs_addchstr(3)
                waddnstr              curs_addstr(3)
                waddstr               curs_addstr(3)
                wattr_get             curs_attr(3)
                wattr_off             curs_attr(3)
                wattr_on              curs_attr(3)
                wattr_set             curs_attr(3)
                wattroff              curs_attr(3)
                wattron               curs_attr(3)


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

                wattrset              curs_attr(3)
                wbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3)
                wbkgdset              curs_bkgd(3)
                wborder               curs_border(3)
                wchgat                curs_attr(3)
                wclear                curs_clear(3)
                wclrtobot             curs_clear(3)
                wclrtoeol             curs_clear(3)
                wcolor_set            curs_attr(3)
                wcursyncup            curs_window(3)
                wdelch                curs_delch(3)
                wdeleteln             curs_deleteln(3)
                wechochar             curs_addch(3)
                wenclose              curs_mouse(3)*
                werase                curs_clear(3)
                wgetch                curs_getch(3)
                wgetnstr              curs_getstr(3)
                wgetstr               curs_getstr(3)
                whline                curs_border(3)
                winch                 curs_inch(3)
                winchnstr             curs_inchstr(3)
                winchstr              curs_inchstr(3)
                winnstr               curs_instr(3)
                winsch                curs_insch(3)
                winsdelln             curs_deleteln(3)
                winsertln             curs_deleteln(3)
                winsnstr              curs_insstr(3)
                winsstr               curs_insstr(3)
                winstr                curs_instr(3)
                wmouse_trafo          curs_mouse(3)
                wmove                 curs_move(3)
                wnoutrefresh          curs_refresh(3)
                wprintw               curs_printw(3)
                wredrawln             curs_refresh(3)
                wrefresh              curs_refresh(3)
                wresize               wresize(3)*
                wscanw                curs_scanw(3)
                wscrl                 curs_scroll(3)
                wsetscrreg            curs_outopts(3)
                wstandend             curs_attr(3)
                wstandout             curs_attr(3)
                wsyncdown             curs_window(3)
                wsyncup               curs_window(3)
                wtimeout              curs_inopts(3)
                wtouchln              curs_touch(3)
                wvline                curs_border(3)

       Routines that return an integer return  ERR  upon  failure
       and  an  integer value other than ERR upon successful com-
       pletion, unless otherwise noted in  the  routine  descrip-

       All  macros  return  the  value  of  the w version, except


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       setscrreg, wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  getmaxyx.   The
       return  values  of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx,
       and getmaxyx are undefined (i.e., these should not be used
       as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The following environment symbols are useful for customiz-
       ing the runtime behavior of the curses library.  The  most
       important ones have been already discussed in detail.

            The  debugging library checks this environment symbol
            when the application has redirected output to a file.
            The  symbol's numeric value is used for the baudrate.
            If no value is found curses uses 9600.   This  allows
            testers  to construct repeatable test-cases that take
            into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character
            (i.e.,  the  cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo
            entries to the value of this symbol.  Very  few  ter-
            minfo entries provide this feature.

            Specify  the  width  of  the  screen  in  characters.
            Applications running in a windowing environment  usu-
            ally  are  able  to obtain the width of the window in
            which they are executing.  If  neither  the  $COLUMNS
            value  nor  the  terminal's screen size is available,
            curses uses the size which may be  specified  in  the
            terminfo database (i.e., the cols capability).

            It  is  important that your application use a correct
            size for the screen.  However,  this  is  not  always
            possible because your application may be running on a
            host which does not honor  NAWS  (Negotiations  About
            Window  Size), or because you are temporarily running
            as another user.

            Either COLUMNS or  LINES  symbols  may  be  specified
            independently.   This  is mainly useful to circumvent
            legacy misfeatures of  terminal  descriptions,  e.g.,
            xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For
            best results, lines and cols should not be  specified
            in a terminal description for terminals which are run
            as emulations.

            Use the use_env function to disable this feature.

            Provides a hint to ncurses that your terminal is an X
            terminal  emulator  such  as  xterm.   If  the  kmous


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

            capability is set to the beginning of the xterm mouse
            response,  e.g., "kmous=\E[M", then ncurses will send
            the terminal xterm's mouse initialization strings and
            allow  appropriate  replies.   See  the curs_mouse(3)
            manual page for programming information.

            Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for  which
            curses will await a character sequence, e.g., a func-
            tion key.  The default value, 1000  milliseconds,  is
            enough for most uses.  However, it is made a variable
            to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change
            this  value is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running
            on a network.  If the  host  cannot  read  characters
            rapidly  enough,  it  will have the same effect as if
            the terminal did not send characters rapidly  enough.
            The library will still see a timeout.

            Note  that xterm mouse events are built up from char-
            acter sequences received from  the  xterm.   If  your
            application makes heavy use of multiple-clicking, you
            may wish to lengthen this default value  because  the
            timeout  applies to the composed multi-click event as
            well as the individual clicks.

       HOME Tells curses where your home directory is.   That  is
            where  it  may  read  and  write  auxiliary  terminal


            Like COLUMNS, specify the height  of  the  screen  in
            characters.   See COLUMNS for a detailed description.

            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies
            the  order  of  buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a
            3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This symbol lets you customize the mouse.  The symbol
            must  be three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g.,
            123 or 321.  If it is not specified, curses uses 132.

            Most  of  the  terminal  descriptions in the terminfo
            database are written for real  "hardware"  terminals.


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

            Many  people  use  terminal  emulators which run in a
            windowing environment and use  curses-based  applica-
            tions.   Terminal  emulators can duplicate all of the
            important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do
            not  have the same limitations.  The chief limitation
            of a hardware terminal from the  standpoint  of  your
            application is the management of dataflow, i.e., tim-
            ing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced into a
            terminal  concentrator  (which does flow control), it
            (or your application) must manage dataflow,  prevent-
            ing  overruns.   The  cheapest  solution (no hardware
            cost) is for your program to do this by pausing after
            operations  that  the  terminal  does slowly, such as
            clearing the display.

            As a result, many  terminal  descriptions  (including
            the  vt100)  have delay times embedded.  You may wish
            to use these descriptions, but not want  to  pay  the
            performance penalty.

            Set  the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to disable all but
            mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is  used  as  a
            part of special control sequences such as flash.

            Normally curses enables buffered output during termi-
            nal initialization.  This is done (as in SVr4 curses)
            for  performance reasons.  For testing purposes, both
            of curses and certain applications, this  feature  is
            made  optional.   Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF vari-
            able disables output buffering, leaving the output in
            the original (usually line buffered) mode.

            During  initialization,  the curses debugging library
            checks the NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it  is  defined,
            to  a numeric value, curses calls the trace function,
            using that value as the argument.

            The argument values, which are defined  in  curses.h,
            provide  several  types of information.  When running
            with traces enabled, your application will write  the
            file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.  Each terminal type is
            distinct, though many are similar.

            If the curses library has been configured with  term-
            cap  support,  curses  will  check  for  a terminal's
            description in termcap form if it is not available in
            the terminfo database.

            The   TERMCAP   symbol  contains  either  a  terminal


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

            description (with newlines stripped out), or  a  file
            name  telling  where  the  information denoted by the
            TERM symbol  exists.   In  either  case,  setting  it
            directs  curses  to  ignore  the usual place for this
            information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides the directory in which curses searches  for
            your terminal description.  This is the simplest, but
            not the only way to change the list  of  directories.
            The complete list of directories in order follows:

            -  the  last directory to which curses wrote, if any,
               is searched first.

            -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

            -  $HOME/.terminfo

            -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

            -  one or more directories whose names are configured
               and   compiled  into  the  curses  library,  e.g.,

            Specifies a list of directories to search for  termi-
            nal  descriptions.   The  list is separated by colons
            (i.e., ":").  All of the terminal descriptions are in
            terminfo  form,  which makes a subdirectory named for
            the first letter of the terminal names therein.

            If TERMCAP does not hold  a  file  name  then  curses
            checks  the TERMPATH symbol.  This is a list of file-
            names  separated  by  colons  (i.e.,  ":").   If  the
            TERMPATH symbol is not set, curses looks in the files
            /etc/termcap, /usr/share/termcap and  $HOME/.termcap,
            in that order.

            directory  containing  initialization  files  for the
            terminal capability database /usr/share/terminfo ter-
            minal capability database

       terminfo(5),  terminfo(3),  and  3 pages whose names begin
       with "curs_" for detailed routine descriptions.

              intro to ncurses.


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

              ncurses hacker's guide.

       The  curses  library  can  be  compiled  with  an   option
       (-DUSE_GETCAP) that falls back to the old-style /etc/term-
       cap file if the terminal setup code cannot find a terminfo
       entry  corresponding  to TERM.  Use of this feature is not
       recommended, as it essentially includes an entire  termcap
       compiler  in  the curses startup code, at significant cost
       in core and startup cycles.

       The curses library includes facilities for capturing mouse
       events  on  certain  terminals  (including xterm). See the
       curs_mouse(3) manual page for details.

       The curses library includes facilities for  responding  to
       window  resizing  events,  e.g., when running in an xterm.
       See the resizeterm(3)  and  wresize(3)  manual  pages  for
       details.   In addition, the library may be configured with
       a SIGWINCH handler.

       The curses library extends the fixed set of  function  key
       capabilities  of  terminals  by  allowing  the application
       designer to define additional key  sequences  at  runtime.
       See  the  define_key(3)  and  keyok(3)  manual  pages  for

       The curses library can exploit the capabilities of  termi-
       nals  which  implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 con-
       trols, which allow an application to reset the terminal to
       its  original  foreground and background colors.  From the
       users' perspective, the application is able to  draw  col-
       ored  text  on  a  background  whose color is set indepen-
       dently, providing better  control  over  color  contrasts.
       See the use_default_colors(3) manual page for details.

       The  curses  library  includes  a  function  for directing
       application output to a printer attached to  the  terminal
       device.  See the curs_print(3) manual page for details.

       The curses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant
       with the XSI Curses standard.   Certain  portions  of  the
       EXTENDED  XSI  Curses  functionality (including color sup-
       port) are supported.  The following  EXTENDED  XSI  Curses
       calls  in  support  of wide (multibyte) characters are not
       yet implemented: add_wch, add_wchnstr, add_wchstr,  addnw-
       str,  addwstr,  bkgrnd,  bkgrndset,  border_set,  box_set,
       echo_wchar,  erasewchar,  get_wch,  get_wstr,   getbkgrnd,
       getcchar,   getn_wstr,   getwchtype,   hline_set,  in_wch,
       in_wchnstr,  in_wchstr,   innwstr,   ins_nwstr,   ins_wch,
       ins_wstr,  inwchnstr,  inwchstr,  inwstr,  key_name, kill-
       wchar, mvadd_wch, mvadd_wchnstr, mvadd_wchstr, mvaddnwstr,


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       mvaddwstr,   mvget_wch,   mvget_wstr,   mvgetn_wstr,  mvh-
       line_set,  mvin_wch,  mvinnwstr,  mvins_nwstr,  mvins_wch,
       mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwstr,
       mvvline_set,  mvwadd_wch,  mvwadd_wchnstr,  mvwadd_wchstr,
       mvwaddnwstr,     mvwaddwstr,     mvwget_ch,    mvwget_wch,
       mvwget_wstr,   mvwgetn_wstr,   mvwhline_set,    mvwin_wch,
       mvwin_wchnstr,   mvwin_wchstr,  mvwinnwstr,  mvwins_nwstr,
       mvwins_wch, mvwins_wstr, mvwinwchnstr.   mvwinwstr,  mvwv-
       line_set,  pecho_wchar,  setcchar,  slk_wset,  term_attrs,
       unget_wch,  vhline_set,  vid_attr,  vid_puts,   vline_set,
       wadd_wch,  wadd_wchnstr, wadd_wchstr, waddnwstr, waddwstr,
       waddwstr, wbkgrnd,  wbkgrndset,  wbkgrndset,  wborder_set,
       wecho_wchar, wecho_wchar, wget_wch, wget_wstr, wgetbkgrnd,
       wgetn_wstr, whline_set, win_wch, win_wchnstr,  win_wchstr,
       winnwstr,  wins_nwstr,  wins_wch,  wins_wstr,  winwchnstr,
       winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual
       differences  between  the XSI Curses and curses calls) are
       described in  PORTABILITY  sections  of  the  library  man

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in SVr4.  See the curs_getch(3) manual page for details.

       The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is  it  pre-
       sent  in  SVr4.   See  the  curs_slk(3)  manual  page  for

       The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse,  mouseinter-
       val,  and  wenclose  relating to mouse interfacing are not
       part of XPG4, nor are  they  present  in  SVr4.   See  the
       curs_mouse(3) manual page for details.

       The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
       implementation.  See the  curs_print(3)  manual  page  for

       The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in SVr4.  See the wresize(3) manual page for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the  capa-
       bilities cr, ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding
       delay bits in the UNIX tty driver.   In  this  implementa-
       tion,  all  padding  is done by NUL sends.  This method is
       slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface to  the
       UNIX  kernel  significantly  and  increases  the package's
       portability correspondingly.

       In the XSI standard and  SVr4  manual  pages,  many  entry
       points have prototype arguments of the for char *const (or
       cchar_t  *const,  or  wchar_t  *const,  or  void  *const).
       Depending  on  one's interpretation of the ANSI C standard
       (see section, these declarations are  either  (a)


ncurses(3)                                             ncurses(3)

       meaningless, or (b) meaningless and illegal.  The declara-
       tion const char *x is a modifiable pointer to unmodifiable
       data,  but  char  *const  x' is an unmodifiable pointer to
       modifiable data.  Given that C passes arguments by  value,
       <type>  *const  as a formal type is at best dubious.  Some
       compilers choke on the  prototypes.   Therefore,  in  this
       implementation,  they  have been changed to const <type> *

       The header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the
       header files <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a curses program is re-directed to
       something which is not  a  tty,  screen  updates  will  be
       directed to standard error.  This was an undocumented fea-
       ture of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric  S.  Raymond,  Thomas  E.  Dickey.
       Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.


Source: OpenBSD 2.6 man pages. Copyright: Portions are copyrighted by BERKELEY
SOFTWARE DESIGN, INC., The Regents of the University of California, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD Inc., and others.

(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)

[Detailed Topics]
FreeBSD Sources for curses(3) functions

[Overview Topics]

Up to: Curses - Curses (Library for text display interfaces)

RocketLink!--> Man page versions: OpenBSD FreeBSD Others

Rapid-Links: Search | About | Comments | Submit Path: RocketAware > man pages > curses.3/
RocketAware.com is a service of Mib Software
Copyright 1999, Forrest J. Cavalier III. All Rights Reserved.
We welcome submissions and comments