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LN(1) OpenBSD Reference Manual LN(1)
ln - make hard and symbolic links to files
ln [-fs] source_file [target_file]
ln [-fs] source_file ... [target_dir]
The ln utility creates a new directory entry (linked file) which has the
same modes as the original file. It is useful for maintaining multiple
copies of a file in many places at once without using up storage for the
copies; instead, a link ``points'' to the original copy. There are two
types of links; hard links and symbolic links. How a link points to a
file is one of the differences between a hard and symbolic link.
The options are as follows:
-f Unlink any already existing file, permitting the link to occur.
-s Create a symbolic link.
By default, ln makes ``hard'' links. A hard link to a file is indistin-
guishable from the original directory entry; any changes to a file are
effectively independent of the name used to reference the file. Hard
links may not normally refer to directories and may not span file sys-
A symbolic link contains the name of the file to which it is linked. The
referenced file is used when an open(2) operation is performed on the
link. A stat(2) on a symbolic link will return the linked-to file; an
lstat(2) must be done to obtain information about the link. The read-
link(2) call may be used to read the contents of a symbolic link. Sym-
bolic links may span file systems, refer to directories, and refer to
Given one or two arguments, ln creates a link to an existing file
source_file. If target_file is given, the link has that name; target_file
may also be a directory in which to place the link. Otherwise, it is
placed in the current directory. If only the directory is specified, the
link will be made to the last component of source_file.
Given more than two arguments, ln makes links in target_dir to all the
named source files. The links made will have the same name as the files
being linked to.
Create a symbolic link named /home/www and point it to /var/www:
ln -s /var/www /home/www
Hard link /usr/local/bin/fooprog to file /usr/local/bin/fooprog-1.0:
ln /usr/local/bin/fooprog-1.0 /usr/local/bin/fooprog
As an exercise, try the following commands:
$ ls -i /bin/[
$ ls -i /bin/test
Note that both files have the same inode; that is, /bin/[ is essentially
an alias for the test(1) command. This hard link exists so test(1) may
be invoked from shell scripts, for example, using the if [ ] construct.
link(2), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), symlink(2), symlink(7)
An ln utility appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.
OpenBSD 2.6 December 30, 1993 2
Source: OpenBSD 2.6 man pages. Copyright: Portions are copyrighted by BERKELEY
SOFTWARE DESIGN, INC., The Regents of the University of California, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD Inc., and others.
(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)
FreeBSD Sources for ln(1)
OpenBSD sources for ln(1)
Up to: File Information - Obtaining file information (status, configuration, et al)
Up to: Directory Access - Accessing directories of files, browsing, management, et al.
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