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RocketLink!--> Man page versions: OpenBSD FreeBSD NetBSD RedHat Solaris Others

STAT(2)                   OpenBSD Programmer's Manual                  STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat - get file status

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path. Read, write or execute permission of the named file is not re-
     quired, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
     must be searchable.

     lstat() is like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym-
     bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the file the link references.  Un-
     like other filesystem objects, symbolic links do not have an owner,
     group, access mode, times, etc.  Instead, these attributes are taken from
     the directory that contains the link.  The only attributes returned from
     an lstat() that refer to the symbolic link itself are the file type
     (S_IFLNK), size, blocks, and link count (always 1).

     The fstat() function obtains the same information about an open file
     known by the file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is a pointer to a stat() structure as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> (shown below) and into which information is placed concern-
     ing the file.

     struct stat {
         dev_t      st_dev;    /* device inode resides on */
         ino_t      st_ino;    /* inode's number */
         mode_t     st_mode;   /* inode protection mode */
         nlink_t    st_nlink;  /* number or hard links to the file */
         uid_t      st_uid;    /* user-id of owner */
         gid_t      st_gid;    /* group-id of owner */
         dev_t      st_rdev;   /* device type, for special file inode */
         struct timespec st_atimespec;  /* time of last access */
         struct timespec st_mtimespec;  /* time of last data modification */
         struct timespec st_ctimespec;  /* time of last file status change */
         off_t      st_size;   /* file size, in bytes */
         int64_t    st_blocks; /* blocks allocated for file */
         u_int32_t  st_blksize;/* optimal file sys I/O ops blocksize */
         u_int32_t  st_flags;  /* user defined flags for file */
         u_int32_t  st_gen;    /* file generation number */

     The time-related fields of struct stat are as follows:

     st_atime     Time when file data was last accessed.  Changed by the
                  mknod(2),  utimes(2) and read(2) system calls.

     st_mtime     Time when file data was last modified.  Changed by the

                  mknod(2),  utimes(2) and write(2) system calls.

     st_ctime     Time when file status was last changed (inode data modifica-
                  tion).  Changed by the chmod(2),  chown(2),  link(2),
                  mknod(2),  rename(2),  unlink(2),  utimes(2) and write(2)
                  system calls.

     The size-related fields of the struct stat are as follows:

     st_blksize     The optimal I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks      The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in
                    512-byte units.  As short symbolic links are stored in the
                    inode, this number may be zero.

     The status information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000           /* type of file */
     #define        S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define        S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define        S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define        S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define        S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define        S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define        S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
     #define        S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner */
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */

     For a list of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).

     Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value
     of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks fields.

     stat() and lstat() will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]     A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

                   A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} characters,
                   or an entire path name exceeded {PATH_MAX} characters.

     [ENOENT]      The named file does not exist.

     [EACCES]      Search permission is denied for a component of the path

     [ELOOP]       Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the

     [EFAULT]      sb or name points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]         An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the
                   file system.

     fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]       fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]      sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]         An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the
                   file system.

     The file generation number, st_gen, is only available to the super-user.

     The fields in the stat structure currently marked st_spare1, st_spare2,
     and st_spare3 are present in preparation for inode time stamps expanding
     to 64 bits.  This, however, can break certain programs that depend on the
     time stamps being contiguous (in calls to utimes(2)).

     chmod(2),  chown(2),  utimes(2),  symlink(7)

     Applying fstat() to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd
     buffer, except for the blocksize field, and a unique device and inode

     The stat() and fstat() function calls are expected to conform to IEEE
     Std1003.1-1988 (``POSIX'').

     An lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

OpenBSD 2.6                     April 19, 1994                               3

Source: OpenBSD 2.6 man pages. Copyright: Portions are copyrighted by BERKELEY
SOFTWARE DESIGN, INC., The Regents of the University of California, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD Inc., and others.

(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)

[Detailed Topics]

[Overview Topics]

Up to: File Information - Obtaining file information (status, configuration, et al)

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