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perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
The functions in this section can serve as terms in an expression. They
fall into two major categories: list operators and named unary operators.
These differ in their precedence relationship with a following comma. (See
the precedence table in the perlop manpage.) List operators take more than one argument, while unary operators can never take more than one argument. Thus, a comma terminates the argument of a unary operator, but merely separates the arguments of a list operator.
A unary operator generally provides a scalar context to its argument, while a list operator may provide either scalar and list contexts for its arguments. If it does both, the scalar arguments will be first, and the list argument will follow. (Note that there can ever be only one list argument.) For instance,
splice() has three scalar arguments followed by a list.
In the syntax descriptions that follow, list operators that expect a list (and provide list context for the elements of the list) are shown with
LIST as an argument. Such a list may consist of any combination of scalar arguments or list values; the list values will be included in the list as if each individual element were interpolated at that point in the list, forming a longer single-dimensional list value. Elements of the
LIST should be separated by commas.
Any function in the list below may be used either with or without
parentheses around its arguments. (The syntax descriptions omit the
parentheses.) If you use the parentheses, the simple (but occasionally
surprising) rule is this: It LOOKS like a function, therefore it IS a function, and precedence doesn't matter. Otherwise it's a list operator
or unary operator, and precedence does matter. And whitespace between the
function and left parenthesis doesn't count--so you need to be careful
print 1+2+4; # Prints 7.
print(1+2) + 4; # Prints 3.
print (1+2)+4; # Also prints 3!
print +(1+2)+4; # Prints 7.
print ((1+2)+4); # Prints 7.
If you run Perl with the -w switch it can warn you about this. For example, the third line above
print (...) interpreted as function at - line 1.
Useless use of integer addition in void context at - line 1.
For functions that can be used in either a scalar or list context,
nonabortive failure is generally indicated in a scalar context by returning
the undefined value, and in a list context by returning the null list.
Remember the following rule:
Each operator and function decides which sort of value it would be most
appropriate to return in a scalar context. Some operators return the length
of the list that would have been returned in a list context. Some operators
return the first value in the list. Some operators return the last value in
the list. Some operators return a count of successful operations. In
general, they do what you want, unless you want consistency.
- THERE IS NO GENERAL RULE FOR CONVERTING A LIST INTO A SCALAR!
Here are Perl's functions (including things that look like functions, like
some of the keywords and named operators) arranged by category. Some
functions appear in more than one place.
- Functions for SCALARs or strings
chomp, chop, chr, crypt, hex, index, lc, lcfirst, length, oct, ord, pack,
q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, reverse, rindex, sprintf, substr, tr///, uc,
- Regular expressions and pattern matching
m//, pos, quotemeta, s///, split, study
- Numeric functions
abs, atan2, cos, exp, hex, int, log, oct, rand, sin, sqrt, srand
- Functions for real @ARRAYs
pop, push, shift, splice, unshift
- Functions for list data
grep, join, map, qw/STRING/, reverse, sort, unpack,
- Functions for real %HASHes
delete, each, exists, keys, values,
- Input and output functions
binmode, close, closedir, dbmclose, dbmopen, die, eof, fileno, flock,
format, getc, print, printf, read, readdir, rewinddir, seek, seekdir,
select, syscall, sysread, sysseek, syswrite, tell, telldir, truncate, warn,
- Functions for fixed length data or records
pack, read, syscall, sysread, syswrite, unpack, vec
- Functions for filehandles, files, or directories
-X, chdir, chmod, chown, chroot, fcntl, glob, ioctl, link, lstat, mkdir,
open, opendir, readlink, rename, rmdir, stat, symlink, umask, unlink, utime,
- Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program
caller, continue, die, do, dump, eval, exit, goto, last, next, redo,
return, sub, wantarray
- Keywords related to scoping
caller, import, local, my, package, use
- Miscellaneous functions
defined, dump, eval, formline, local, my, reset, scalar, undef, wantarray
- Functions for processes and process groups
alarm, exec, fork, getpgrp, getppid, getpriority, kill, pipe, qx/STRING/,
setpgrp, setpriority, sleep, system, times, wait, waitpid
- Keywords related to perl modules
do, import, no, package, require, use
- Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness
bless, dbmclose, dbmopen, package, ref, tie, tied, untie, use
- Low-level socket functions
accept, bind, connect, getpeername, getsockname, getsockopt, listen, recv,
send, setsockopt, shutdown, socket, socketpair
- System V interprocess communication functions
msgctl, msgget, msgrcv, msgsnd, semctl, semget, semop, shmctl, shmget,
- Fetching user and group info
endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endpwent, getgrent, getgrgid, getgrnam,
getlogin, getpwent, getpwnam, getpwuid, setgrent, setpwent
- Fetching network info
endprotoent, endservent, gethostbyaddr, gethostbyname, gethostent,
getnetbyaddr, getnetbyname, getnetent, getprotobyname, getprotobynumber,
getprotoent, getservbyname, getservbyport, getservent, sethostent,
setnetent, setprotoent, setservent
- Time-related functions
gmtime, localtime, time, times
- Functions new in perl5
abs, bless, chomp, chr, exists, formline, glob, import, lc, lcfirst, map,
my, no, prototype, qx, qw, readline, readpipe, ref, sub*, sysopen, tie,
tied, uc, ucfirst, untie, use
* - sub was a keyword in perl4, but in perl5 it is an operator which can be used in
- Functions obsoleted in perl5
Source: Perl manual pages Copyright: Larry Wall, et al.
(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)
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