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RocketLink!--> Man page versions: OpenBSD FreeBSD NetBSD RedHat Solaris Others

LAST(1)                    OpenBSD Reference Manual                    LAST(1)

     last - indicate last logins of users and ttys

     last [-c] [-n] [-s] [-T] [-f file] [-h host] [-t tty] [-d
          [[yy]yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[.ss]] [user ...]

     last will either (1) list the sessions of specified users, ttys, and
     hosts, in reverse time order, or (2) list the users logged in at a speci-
     fied snapshot date & time in reverse time order.  Each line of output
     contains the user name, the tty from which the session was conducted, any
     hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the duration of
     the session.  If the session is still continuing or was cut short by a
     crash or shutdown, last will so indicate.

     -c          Calculates the total time displayed and prints it after the

     -f file     last reads the file file instead of the default,

     -n          Limits the report to n lines.

     -s          Display time values in seconds since the epoch, instead of
                 formatted dates.

     -t tty      Specify the tty. tty names may be given fully or abbreviated,
                 for example, ``last -t 03'' is equivalent to ``last -t

     -h host     host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -T          Display better time information, including seconds.

     -d date     Specify the snapshot date & time.  All users logged in at the
                 snapshot date & time will be reported.  This may be used with
                 the -f option to derive the results from stored wtmp files.
                 When this argument is provided, all other options except for
                 -f and -n are ignored.  The argument should be in the form
                 ``[[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]'' where each pair of letters repre-
                 sents the following:

                       CC      The first two digits of the year (the century).
                       YY      The second two digits of the year.  If ``YY''
                               is specified, but ``CC'' is not, a value for
                               ``YY'' between 69 and 99 results in a ``YY''
                               value of 19.  Otherwise, a ``YY'' value of 20
                               is used.
                       MM      Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
                       DD      Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
                       hh      Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
                       mm      Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
                       SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

                 If the ``CC'' and ``YY'' letter pairs are not specified, the
                 values default to the current year.  If the ``SS'' letter
                 pair is not specified, the value defaults to 0.

     If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
     the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
     ``last root -t console'' would list all of ``root's'' sessions as well as
     all sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames or terminals
     are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system; thus ``last
     reboot'' will give an indication of mean time between reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has pro-
     gressed.  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

     /var/log/wtmp  login data base

     lastcomm(1),  utmp(5),  ac(8)

     last appeared in 3.0BSD.

OpenBSD 2.6                      June 6, 1993                                2

Source: OpenBSD 2.6 man pages. Copyright: Portions are copyrighted by BERKELEY
SOFTWARE DESIGN, INC., The Regents of the University of California, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD Inc., and others.

(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)

[Detailed Topics]
FreeBSD Sources for last(1)
OpenBSD sources for last(1)

[Overview Topics]

Up to: Process Limits: Identity - Process ownership and Identity

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