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AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

       awk - pattern-directed scanning and processing language

       awk|nawk  [  -F fs ] [ -v var=value ] [ -safe ] [ -mrn ] [
       -mfn ] [ 'prog' | -f progfile ] [ file ...  ]

       Awk scans each input file for lines that match  any  of  a
       set  of  patterns specified literally in prog or in one or
       more files specified as -f progfile.   With  each  pattern
       there  can  be an associated action that will be performed
       when a line of a file matches the pattern.  Each  line  is
       matched  against  the  pattern  portion  of every pattern-
       action statement; the associated action is  performed  for
       each  matched pattern.  The file name - means the standard
       input.  Any file of the form var=value is  treated  as  an
       assignment, not a filename, and is executed at the time it
       would have been opened if it were a filename.  The  option
       -v  followed  by  var=value  is  an  assignment to be done
       before prog is executed; any number of -v options  may  be
       present.  The -F fs option defines the input field separa-
       tor to be the regular expression  fs.   The  -safe  option
       disables file output (print >, print >>), process creation
       (cmd|getline, print |, system), and access to the environ-
       ment  (ENVIRON).  This  is a first (and not very reliable)
       approximation to a "safe" version of awk.

       An input line is normally made up of fields  separated  by
       white  space, or by regular expression FS.  The fields are
       denoted $1, $2, ..., while $0 refers to the  entire  line.
       If  FS is null, the input line is split into one field per

       To compensate for  inadequate  implementation  of  storage
       management,  the -mr option can be used to set the maximum
       size of the input record, and the -mf option  to  set  the
       maximum number of fields.

       A pattern-action statement has the form

              pattern { action }

       A  missing { action } means print the line; a missing pat-
       tern always matches.  Pattern-action statements are  sepa-
       rated by newlines or semicolons.

       An action is a sequence of statements.  A statement can be
       one of the following:

              if( expression ) statement [ else statement ]
              while( expression ) statement
              for( expression ; expression ; expression ) statement
              for( var in array ) statement


AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

              do statement while( expression )
              { [ statement ... ] }
              expression              # commonly var = expression
              print [ expression-list ] [ > expression ]
              printf format [ , expression-list ] [ > expression ]
              return [ expression ]
              next                    # skip remaining patterns on this input line
              nextfile                # skip rest of this file, open next, start at top
              delete array[ expression ]# delete an array element
              delete array            # delete all elements of array
              exit [ expression ]     # exit immediately; status is expression

       Statements are terminated by semicolons, newlines or right
       braces.   An  empty expression-list stands for $0.  String
       constants are quoted " ", with the usual C escapes  recog-
       nized  within.  Expressions take on string or numeric val-
       ues as appropriate, and are built using the operators +  -
       *  / % ^ (exponentiation), and concatenation (indicated by
       white space).  The operators ! ++ -- += -= *= /= %=  ^=  >
       >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions.  Vari-
       ables may be scalars, array  elements  (denoted  x[i])  or
       fields.   Variables  are  initialized  to the null string.
       Array  subscripts  may  be  any  string,  not  necessarily
       numeric;  this  allows  for  a form of associative memory.
       Multiple subscripts such as  [i,j,k]  are  permitted;  the
       constituents  are  concatenated, separated by the value of

       The print statement prints its arguments on  the  standard
       output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a
       pipe if |cmd is present), separated by the current  output
       field separator, and terminated by the output record sepa-
       rator.  file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized
       expressions;  identical  string values in different state-
       ments denote the same open  file.   The  printf  statement
       formats  its  expression list according to the format (see
       printf(3)).  The built-in function close(expr) closes  the
       file  or  pipe  expr.   The built-in function fflush(expr)
       flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr.

       The mathematical functions exp, log, sqrt, sin,  cos,  and
       atan2 are built in.  Other built-in functions:

       length the length of its argument taken as a string, or of
              $0 if no argument.

       rand   random number on (0,1)

       srand  sets seed for rand and returns the previous seed.

       int    truncates to an integer value


AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

       substr(s, m, n)
              the n-character substring of s that begins at posi-
              tion m counted from 1.

       index(s, t)
              the  position  in s where the string t occurs, or 0
              if it does not.

       match(s, r)
              the position in s where the  regular  expression  r
              occurs,  or 0 if it does not.  The variables RSTART
              and RLENGTH are set to the position and  length  of
              the matched string.

       split(s, a, fs)
              splits the string s into array elements a[1], a[2],
              ..., a[n], and returns n.  The separation  is  done
              with  the  regular  expression fs or with the field
              separator FS if fs is not given.  An  empty  string
              as field separator splits the string into one array
              element per character.

       sub(r, t, s)
              substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regu-
              lar  expression  r  in  the  string s.  If s is not
              given, $0 is used.

       gsub   same as sub except that all occurrences of the reg-
              ular  expression  are replaced; sub and gsub return
              the number of replacements.

       sprintf(fmt, expr, ... )
              the  string  resulting  from  formatting  expr  ...
              according to the printf(3) format fmt

              executes cmd and returns its exit status

              returns  a  copy of str with all upper-case charac-
              ters translated to their  corresponding  lower-case

              returns  a  copy of str with all lower-case charac-
              ters translated to their  corresponding  upper-case

       The  ``function'' getline sets $0 to the next input record
       from the current input file; getline <file sets $0 to  the
       next record from file.  getline x sets variable x instead.
       Finally, cmd | getline pipes the output of cmd  into  get-
       line; each call of getline returns the next line of output
       from  cmd.   In  all  cases,  getline  returns  1  for   a


AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

       successful  input, 0 for end of file, and -1 for an error.

       Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&)
       of  regular expressions and relational expressions.  Regu-
       lar expressions are as in egrep;  see  grep(1).   Isolated
       regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line.
       Regular expressions may also occur in  relational  expres-
       sions,  using  the operators ~ and !~.  /re/ is a constant
       regular expression; any string (constant or variable)  may
       be used as a regular expression, except in the position of
       an isolated regular expression in a pattern.

       A pattern may consist  of  two  patterns  separated  by  a
       comma; in this case, the action is performed for all lines
       from an occurrence of the first pattern though  an  occur-
       rence of the second.

       A relational expression is one of the following:

              expression matchop regular-expression
              expression relop expression
              expression in array-name
              (expr,expr,...) in array-name

       where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C,
       and a matchop is  either  ~  (matches)  or  !~  (does  not
       match).   A  conditional  is  an  arithmetic expression, a
       relational expression, or a Boolean combination of  these.

       The  special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture
       control before the first input line is read and after  the
       last.  BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns.

       Variable names with special meanings:

              conversion  format  used  when  converting  numbers
              (default %.6g)

       FS     regular expression used to  separate  fields;  also
              settable by option -Ffs.

       NF     number of fields in the current record

       NR     ordinal number of the current record

       FNR    ordinal number of the current record in the current

              the name of the current input file

       RS     input record separator (default newline)


AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

       OFS    output field separator (default blank)

       ORS    output record separator (default newline)

       OFMT   output format for numbers (default %.6g)

       SUBSEP separates multiple subscripts (default 034)

       ARGC   argument count, assignable

       ARGV   argument array, assignable;  non-null  members  are
              taken as filenames

              array  of  environment  variables;  subscripts  are

       Functions may be defined (at the position  of  a  pattern-
       action statement) thus:

              function foo(a, b, c) { ...; return x }

       Parameters  are passed by value if scalar and by reference
       if  array  name;  functions  may  be  called  recursively.
       Parameters  are local to the function; all other variables
       are global.  Thus local variables may be created  by  pro-
       viding excess parameters in the function definition.

       length($0) > 72
              Print lines longer than 72 characters.

       { print $2, $1 }
              Print first two fields in opposite order.

       BEGIN { FS = ",[ \t]*|[ \t]+" }
             { print $2, $1 }
              Same,  with  input fields separated by comma and/or
              blanks and tabs.

            { s += $1 }
       END  { print "sum is", s, " average is", s/NR }
              Add up first column, print sum and average.

       /start/, /stop/
              Print all lines between start/stop pairs.

       BEGIN     {    # Simulate echo(1)
            for (i = 1; i < ARGC; i++) printf "%s ", ARGV[i]
            printf "\n"
            exit }

       lex(1), sed(1)


AWK(1)                                                     AWK(1)

       A. V. Aho, B. W. Kernighan, P. J. Weinberger, The AWK Pro-
       gramming    Language,    Addison-Wesley,    1988.     ISBN

       There are no  explicit  conversions  between  numbers  and
       strings.  To force an expression to be treated as a number
       add 0 to it; to force it to be treated as  a  string  con-
       catenate "" to it.
       The  scope  rules  for variables in functions are a botch;
       the syntax is worse.


Source: OpenBSD 2.6 man pages. Copyright: Portions are copyrighted by BERKELEY
SOFTWARE DESIGN, INC., The Regents of the University of California, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD Inc., and others.

(Corrections, notes, and links courtesy of RocketAware.com)

[Detailed Topics]
FreeBSD Sources for awk(1)
OpenBSD sources for awk(1)

[Overview Topics]

Up to: Text File Output - Methods of printing and displaying text files.
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